धर्मवीर हकीकत राय

वीर हकीकत राय का जन्म 1720 में सियालकोट में बागमल पूरी के यहाँ हुया।इनकी माता का नाम कोरा था।बागमल सियालकोट के तब के प्रसिद्ध सम्पन हिन्दू व्यपारी थे।वीर हकीकत राय उनकी एकलौती सन्तान थी।उस समय देश में बाल विवाह प्रथा प्रचलित थी,क्योकि हिन्दुओ को भय रहता था कि कहि मुसलमान उनकी बेटियो को उठा कर न ले जाये।जैसे आज भी पाकिस्तान और बांग्लादेश से समाचार आते रहते है।इसी कारण से वीर हकीकत राय का विवाह बटाला के निवासी क्रिशन सिंह की बेटी लक्ष्मी देवीसे बारहा वर्ष की आयु में क्र दिया गया था।

उस समय देश में मुसलमानो का राज था।जिन्होंने देश के सभी राजनितिक और प्रशासिनक कार्यो के लिये फ़ारसी भाषा लागु कर रखी थे।देश में सभी काम फ़ारसी में होते थे।इसी से यह कहावत भी बन गई कि ,” हाथ कंगन को आरसी क्या,और पढ़े लिखे को फ़ारसी क्या”। इसी कारण से बागमल पूरी ने अपने पुत्र को फ़ारसी सिखने के लिये मोलवी के पास उसके मदरसे में पढ़ने के लिये भेजा।कहते है और जो बाद में सिद्ध भी हो गया कि वो पढ़ाई में अपने अन्य सहपाठियों से अधिक तेज था, जिससे वो मुसलमान बालक हकीकत राय से घृणा करने लगे।

कहते है कि एक बार हकीकत राय का अपने मुसलमान सहपाठियों के साथ झगड़ा हो गया।उन्होंने माता दुर्गा के प्रति अप्सब्द कहे,जिसका हकीकत ने विरोध करते हुए कहा,”क्या यह आप को अच्छा लगेगा यदि यही शब्द मै आपकी बीबी फातिमा (मोहम्द की पुत्री) के सम्बन्ध में कहु।इसलिये आप को भी अन्य के प्रति ऐसे शब्द नही कहने चाहिये।”इस पर मुस्लिम बच्चों ने शोर मचा दिया की इसने बीबी फातिमा को गालिया निकाल कर इस्लाम और मोहम्द का अपमान किया है।साथ ही उन्होंने हकीकत को मारना पीटना शुरू क्र दिया।मदरसे के मोलवी ने भी मुस्लिम बच्चों का ही पक्ष लिया।शीघ्र ही यह बात सारे स्यालकोट में फैल गई।लोगोने हकीकत को पकड़ कर मारते-पिटते स्थानीय हाकिम अदीना बेग के समक्ष पेश किया।वो समझ गया की यह बच्चों का झगड़ा है,मगर मुस्लिम लोग उसे मृत्यु-दण्ड की मांग करने लगे।हकीकत राए के माता पिता ने भी दया की याचना की।तब अदीना बेग ने कहा,”मै मजबूर हूँ।परन्तु यदि हकीकत इस्लाम कबूल कर ले तो उसकी जान बख्श दी जायेगी।” किन्तु वो 14 वर्ष का बालक हकीकत राय ने धर्म परिवर्तन से इंकार कर दिया।अब तो काजी ,मोलवी और सारे मुसलमान उसे मारने को तैयार हो गए।ऐसे में बागमल के मित्रो ने कहा कि स्याकोट का वातावरण बहुत बिगड़ा हुआ है,यहाँ हकीकत के बचने की कोई आशा नही है।ऐसे में तुम्हे पंजाब के नवाब ज़करिया खान के पास लाहौर में फरियाद करनी चाहिये।बागमल ने रिश्वत देकर अपने बेटे का मुकदमा लाहौर भेजने की फरियाद की जो मंजूर कर ली गई।स्यालकोट से मुगल घुड़सवार हकीकत को लेकर लाहौर के लिये रवाना हो गये।हकीकत रे को यह सारी यात्रा पैदल चल कर पूरी करनी थी।उसके साथ बागमल अपनी पत्नी कोरा और एनी मित्रो के संग पैदल चल पड़ा।उसने हकीकत की पत्नी को बटाला उसके पिता के पास भिजवा दिया।कहते है कि लक्ष्मी से यह सारी बाते गुप्त रखी गई थी।परन्तु मार्ग में उसकी डोली और बन्दी बने हकीकत का मेल हो गया।जिससे लक्ष्मी को सारे घटनाक्रम का पता चला।फिर। भी उसे समझा-बुझा कर बटाला भेज दिया गया।IMG_20160206_152909

दूसरी तरफ स्यालकोट के मुसमन भी स्थानीय मौलवियो और काजियों को लेकर हकीकत को सजा दिलाने हेतु दल बना कर पीछे पीछे चल पड़े।सारे रास्ते वो हकीकत राय को डराते धमकाते,तरह तरह के लालच देते और गालिया निकलते चलते रहे।अगर किसी हिन्दू ने उसे सवारी या घोड़े पर बिठाना चाहा भी तो साथ चल रहे सैनिको ने मना कर दिया।मार्ग में जहाँ से भी हकीकत रे गुजरा, लोग साथ होते गये।

आखिर दो दिनों की यात्रा के बाद हकीकत राय को बन्दी बनाकर लानेवाले सेनिक लाहौर पहुंचे।अगले दिन उसे पंजाब के तत्कालिक सूबेदार ज़करिया खान के समक्ष पेश किया गया।यहाँ भी हकीकत के स्यालकोट से आयेमुस्लिम सहपाठियों,मुल्लाओं और काजियों ने हकीकत राय को मोत की सजा देने की मांग की।उन्हें लाहोर के मुस्लिम उलिमा कभी समर्थन मिल गया।नवाब ज़करिया खान समझ तो गया की यह बच्चों का झगड़ा है, मगर मुस्लिम उलमा हकीकत की मृतयु या मुसलमान बनने से कम पर तैयार न थे।वास्तव में यह इस्लाम फेलाने का एक ढंग था।सीखो के पांचवे गुरु श्री गुरु अर्जुनदेव और नोवै गुरु श्री गुरु तेगबहादुर जी को भी इस्लाम कबूलने अथवा शहीदी देने की शर्त रखी गयी थी।

परन्तु यहाँ भी हकीकत राय ने अपना धर्म छोड़ने से मना क्र दिया।उसने पूछा,”क्या यदि मै मुसलमान बन जाऊ तो मुझे मौत नही आएगी?क्या मुसलमानो को मौत नही आती?” तो उलिमयो ने कहा,”मौत तो सभी को आती है।” तब हकीकत राय ने कहा,” तो फिर मै अपना धर्म क्यों छोड़ू ,जो सभी को ईश्वर की सन्तान मानता है और क्यों इस्लाम कबुलु जो मेरे मुसलमान सहपाठियों के मेरी माता भगवती को कहे अपशब्दों को सही ठहराता है ,मगर मेरे न कहने पर भी उन्ही शब्दों के लिये मुझसे जीवित रहने का भी अधिकार छिन लेता है।जो दीन दूसरे धर्म के लोगो को गालिया निकलना,उन्हें लूटना,उन्हें मारना और उन्हें पग पग पर अपमानित करना अल्ला का हुक्म मानता हो,मै ऐसे धर्म को दूर से ही सलाम करता हूं।”

इस प्रकार सारा दिन लाहौर दरबार में शास्त्रार्थ होता रहा,मगर हकीकत राय इसल कबूलने को तैयार ना हुआ।जैसे जैसे हकीकत की विद्वता ,साहस और बुद्धिमता प्रगट होती रही,वैसे वैसे। मुसलमानो में उसे दिन मनाने का उतसाह भी बढ़ता रहा।परन्तु कोई स्वार्थ,कोई लालच और न ही कोई भय उस 14 वर्ष के बालक हकीकत को डिगाने में सफल रहा।

आखिरकार हकीकत राय के माता पिता ने एक दिन का समय माँगा,जिससे वो हकीकत राय को समझा सके।उन्हें समय दे दिया गया।रात को हकीकत राय के माता पिता उसे जेल में मिलने गए।उन्होंने भी हकीकत राय को मुसलमान बन जाने के लिये तरह तरह से समझाया।माँ ने अपने बाल नोचे,रोइ,दूध का वास्ता दिया।मगर हकीकत ने कहा,”माँ! यह तुम क्या कर रही हो।तुम्हारी ही दी शिक्षया ने तो मुझे ये सब सहन करने की शक्ति दी है।मै कैसे तेरी दी शिक्षाओं का अपमान करू।आप ही ने सिखाया था कि धर्म से बढ़ के इस संसार में कुछ भी नही है।आत्मा अम्र है।”

अगले दिन वीर बालक हकीकत राय को दोबारा लाहौर के सूबेदार के समक्ष पेश किया गया।सभी को विश्वास था कि हकीकत आज अवश्य इस्लाम कबूल कर लेगा।उससे आखरी बार पूछा गया कि क्या वो मुसलमान बनने को तैयार है।परन्तु हकीकत ने तुरन्त इससे इंकार कर दिया।अब मुलिम उलमा हकीकत के लिये सजाये मौत मांगने लगे।ज़करिया खान ने इस पर कहा,” मै इसे मरतुयु दण्ड कैसे दे सकता हु।यह राष्ट्रद्रोही नही है और ना ही इसने हकुमत का कोई कानून तोड़ा है?” तब लाहौर के काजियों ने कहा कि यह इस्लाम का मुजरिम है।इसे आप हमे सौंप दे।हम इसे इस्लामिक कानून(शरिया) के मुताबिक सजा देगें।दरबार में मौजूद दरबारियों ने भी काजी की हाँ में हाँ मिला दी।अतह नवाब ने हकीकत राय को काजियों को सौंप दिया कि उनका निर्णय ही आगे मान्य होगा।

अब लाहौर के उल्मायो न मुस्लिम शरिया के मुताबिक े हकीकत की सजा तय करने के लिये बैठक की।इस्लाम के मुताबिक कोई भी व्यक्ति इस्लाम ,उसके पैगम्बर और कुरान की सर्वोच्चता को चुनोती नही दे सकता।और यदि कोई ऐसा करता है तो वो ‘शैतान’ है।शैतान के लिये इस्लाम में एक ही सजा है कि उसे पत्थर मार मार क्र मार दिया जाये।आज भी जो मुसलमान हज पर जाते है,उनका हज तब तक पूरा नही माना जाता जब तक कि वो वहाँ शैतान के प्रतीकों को पत्थर नही मारते।कई मुस्लिम देशो में आज भी यह प्रथा प्रचलित है।लाहौर के मुस्लिम उलिमियो ने हकीकत राय के लिये भी यही सजा घोषित क्र दी।

1849 में गणेशदास रचित पुस्तक,’चार-बागे पंजाब’ के मुताबिक इसकेलिय लाहोर में बकायदा मुनादी करवाई गई कि अगले दिन हकीकत नाम के शैतान को (संग-सार) अर्थात पत्थरो से मारा जायेगा और जो जो मुसलमान इस मौके पर सबाब(पूण्य) कमाना चाहे आ जाये।IMG_20160206_152756

अगले दिन बसन्त पंचमी का दिन था जो तब भी और आज भी लाहौर में भी भरी धूमधाम से मनाया जाता है।वीर हकीकत राय को लाहौर की कोतवाली से निकल कर उसके सामने ही गड्डा खोद कर कमर तक उसमे गाड़ दिया गया।लाहौर के मुसलमान शैतान को पत्थर मारने का पूण्य कमाने हेतु उसे चारो तरफ से घेर कर खड़े हो गए।हकीकत राय से अंतिम बार मुसलमान बनने के बारे में पूछा गया।हकीकत ने अपना निर्णय दोहरा दिया कि मुझे मरणा कबूल है पर इस्लाम नही।इस ने लाहौर के काजियों ने हकीकत राय को संग-सार करने का आदेश सुना दिया।आदेश मिलते ही उस 14 वर्ष केरीती बालक पर हर तरफ से पत्थरो की बारिश होने लगी।हजारो लोग उस बालक पर पत्थर बरसा रहे थे,जबकि हकीकत ‘राम-राम’ का जाप क्र रहा था।शीघ्र ही उसका सारा शरीर पत्थरो की मार से लहूलुहान हो गया और वो बेहोश हो गया।अब पास खड़े जल्लाद को उस बालक पर दया आ गयी की कब तक यह बालक यु पत्थर खाता रहेगा।इससे यही उचित है की मै ही इसे मार दू।इतना सोच कर उसने अपनी तलवार से हकीकत राय का सिर काट दिया।रक्त की धराये बह निकली और वीर हकीकत राय 1734 में बसन्त पंचमी के दिन अपने धर्म पर बलिदान हो गया।

दोपहर बाद हिन्दुओ को हकीकत राय के शव के वेदिक रीती से संस्कार की अनुमति मिल गई।हकीकत राय के धड़ को गड्ढे से निकाला गया।उसके शव को गंगाजल से नहलाया गया।उसकी शव यात्रा में सरे लाहौर के हिन्दू आ जुटे।सरे रास्ते उस के शव पर फुलो की वर्ष होती रही।इतिहास की पुस्तको में दर्ज है कि लाहौर में ऐसा कोई फूल नही बचा था जो हिन्दुओ ने खरीद कर उस धर्म-वीर के शव पर न चढ़ाया हो।कहते है कि किसी माली की टोकरी में एक ही फूलो का हार बचा था जो वो स्वयं चढ़ाना चाहता था, मगर भीढ़ में से एक औरत अपने कान का गहना नोच कर उसकी टोकरी में डाल के हार झपट कर ले गई।1 पाई में बिकने वाला वो हार उस दिन 15 रुपये में बिका ।यह उस आभूषण का मूल्य था।हकीकत राय का अंतिम संस्कार रावी नदी के तट पर क्र दिया गया।

जब हकीकत के शव का लाहौर में संस्कार हो रहा था,ठीक उसी समय। बटाला में उसकी 12 वर्ष की पत्नी लक्ष्मी देवी भी चिता सजा कर सती हो गई।बटाला में आज भी उनकी समाधि मौजूद है, जहाँ हर बसन्त को भारी उतसाह से मनाया जाता है।IMG_20160206_153044

लाहौर में हकीकत राय की दो समाधिया बनाई गई।पहली जहाँ उन्हें शहीद किया गया एयर दूसरी जहाँ उनका संस्कार किया गया।महाराजा रणजीत सिंह के समय से ही हकीकत राय की समाधियों पर बसन्त पंचमी पर मेलेIMG_20160206_153211

लगते रहे जो 1947 के विभाजन तक मनाया जाता रहा।1947 में हकीकत राय की मुख्य समाधि नष्ट कर दी गई।रावी नदी के तट पर जहाँ हकीकत राय का संस्कार हुआ था,वहाँ लाहौर निवासी कालूराम ने रणजीत सिंह के समय में पुंरूदार करवाया था।इससे वो कालूराम के मन्दिर से ही जाने जाना लगा।इसी से वो बच गया और आज भी लाहौर में वो समाधि मौजूद हैIMG_20160206_152344

हकीकत राय के गृहनगर स्यालकोट में उसके घर में भी उसकी याद में समाधि बनाई गई, वो भी 1947 में नष्ट कर दी गई।IMG_20160206_152440

इस धर्म वीर के माता पिता अपने पुत्र की अस्थिया लेकर हरिद्वार गए,मगर फिर कभी लोट के नही आये।

वीर हकीकत राय के बारे में पंजाब में वीर गाथाये लिखी और गायी जाती रही।सर्वप्रथम अगरे ने 1772 में हकीकत की गाथा काव्य शैली में लिखी।इसके अतिरिक्त सोहन लाल सूरी,गणेशदास वढेरा,गोकुलचन्द नारंग,स्वामी श्रदां नंद,गण्डा सिंह और अन्य सिख इतिहासकारो ने भी हकीकत राय पर लिखा है।

हम आज बसन्तपंचमि के शुभ अवसर पर इस धर्म वीर अमर बलिदानी वीर हकीकत राय और उनकी पत्नी श्री लक्ष्मी देवी को उनके बलिदान दिवस पर शत शत नमन करते है।

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The massacres at Ajnala

During the days of Mutiny, the British officers mercilessly suppressed even the slightest signs of unrest in the Punjab, They perpetrated gruesome cruelties on the people and made an indiscriminate murder of guilty and innocent alike. Fredrick Cooper’s action at Ajnala against  the disband Hindustani soldiers is one of those ghastly incidents which he himself described in his book,”the Crisis in the Punjab”.

The Indian soldiers of the 26th Native Infantry, after being disarmed by Robert Montgomery, became a problem for the government .They could neither be left to themselves nor allowed to go.They were like birds which strive an outlet through the bars.On 30th  July ,they decided to escape from their barracks with the intention of ultimately reaching Delhi. But Delhi was for off. When The British officers came to know of their intention , they went to their barracks to asses the situation.The Sepoy became restive and attacked their officer  Major Spenser and put him to death.The Seargent Major who tried to intervene also met the same fate.  The disarmed Sepoywith no better weapons than hatchets and knives fled away from Mian Mir.An unexpected dust storm provided them with the much wanted cover and it was not known at first in which direction  they had gone.On 31th July, a large body of them appeared on left side of the Ravi near Balaghat asking for information as to the fords.The villagers of Ajnala reported  their presence to the Tehsildar of Ajnala . The latter quickly brought down every available policemen and attacked the Sepoy. An encounter followed in which 150 sepoys were killed.

At this juncture ,Fedrick Cooper , the Deputy Commissioner ,Amritsar arrived at the scene with a party of 80 horsemen . He found Indian sepoys ,” crouching like a flock of wild fowl” taking shelter in an Island midstream.Boats were procured,and zealous villagers brought the capatives ashore with their hands tightly pinioned. About fifty prisoners plunged into thr river in despair who were drowned or shot dead while trying to swim away.  The rest numbering 280 were marched off to Ajnala, where they reached at night. Their execution  was  delayed till morning.About 220 were lodged in the local police station and the rest of them were locked up in a small dungeon of a newly built house meant for the  Tehsil office.

The massacres at Ajnala

The Deputy Commissioner had ordered for a large number of ropes to hang the culprits. In his eyes, the prisoners were all murderers, so he decided that,”that should all die”. But the ropes were in short supply, and were not sufficient to hang all ofthem. So it was decided to blow them with guns in small batches.

In the morning, those locked up in the Thana ( Police station) were brought out in batches of ten. Confronting them was a firing party and when the unfortunate victims were at point-black range, the trigger clicked and every one of the batch of ten day dead. The next batch followed to meet the same fate and this continued till all the men locked up in a small dungeon of the new building. When the door of the room was opend to drag the captives out, of the 66 locked up only 11 came out to be executed. The remaining had already died of suffocation  and nothing remained but to pull their bodies out. Fedrick Cooper, the author of the ghasty carnage himself writes,”The doors were opened and behold  Unconsciously, the tragedy of Holwell’s Black Hole had been re-enacted. No cries had been heard during the night. Forty five bodies dead from fright, exhaustion, fatigue and heat and partial suffocation, were dragged into light, and consigned in common with all others bodies, into one pit(a well at Ajnala) by the hands of the village sweepers”. His description of his own exploits,”reveals a fiendish mentality which is rare perhaps even among the brutalized military officers of these days.” About  47 Hindustani sepoys were subsequently captured and were sent back to lahore. After a sentence of Court Martial, they were blown from guns in the presence of a whole brigade.

Cooper, justifying his action, wrote that the position of the British was very critical and it was necessary to give aweful punishment to the mutineers. He tells that his righteous act was incomplete in the opinion of the assembled native to whom the crime was fully explained. According to him, “they marvelled at the clemency and justice of the British for not killing the rabble of men, women and children who bad joined the mutineers”.

 The Government approves of Cooper’s action.

Cooper’s action met with immediate official approval. Lawrence wrote ,”I congratulate you on your success against the 26th Native Infantry. You and your police acted with much energy and spirit, and deserve well of state. I trust the fate of these sepoys will operate as a warning to others. Every effort should be exerted to glean up all who are at large.” His act was equally commended by Robert Montgomery who wrote, “All honour to you for what you have done, and right well you did it…it will be a feather to your cap as long as you live”

Cooper congratulated himself that,”within forty eight hours of the date of the crime,there fell by the law nearly 500 men”.”What crime ? What law ?”. asked Montgomery Martin,”demanded the extermination of a helpless multitude?” Referring to such criticism of Cooper’s action a British historian T.R. Holmes, feels sorry that for his ‘splendid work’.Cooper was “assailed by the hysterical cries of ignorant humanitarians “.The sacrifice of five hundred villainous lives for the murder of two English is a retribution that will be remembered”. At this Thompson apathy observes,”Yes it is one of the memories OF India, as Cawanpur is of England.”. Cooper’s narration of the Ajnala massacres reached its climax in these words,”There is a well an Cawnpur , but there is also in Ajnala”. Majumdar remarks,”Here Cooper has blurted out a great truth which no one , particularly no Englishman should forget”. Thompson again rightly says,”I see no reason why he (Cooper) should be denied the immortality he craved so earnestly. Let his name be remembered with Nana Sahib’s”.

The gruesome incident of Ajnala was by no means an exception . Everywhere in the Punjab and Northern India, the English officers made an indiscriminate massacre of guilty and innocent alike to overawe the people and ti bring them to submission. Historically the importance of such atrocites as remarks Dr. Ishwar Prasad,” consisted in the creation of that racial hatred which disfigured our social life in post-mutiny India”.

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Nelson Mandela & Mahatma Gandhi

Nelson Mandela, Man of the century ,great freedom fighter ,he ever be remember.
even Mahatma Gandhi also could learn TOO many things from this  great  BLACK MAN with GODEN HEART.

THEY both know for their non-violence(philanthropist) ideology. both have  many similarities.both face  racism, inequality, and fostering racial reconciliation. Where, first half of last century belong to Mahatma Gandhi. Second, defiantly a Nelson Mandela’s era.

But both have known for some separate reason also.When we compare their successes Gandhi not stood near Nelson Mandela. where Mahatma Gandhi becme India & its people  a   libtory  for his political , religious , sexual & social experiments which of mostly proved disaster & nation paid it with its own blood. Where  Gandhi failed to stop riots, killings, rape of women before &after part ion  of India. Even after 65 year of Independence riots, different law s  for different peoples, unequally & poverty.     IN Indian Government’s ECNOMICLE POLICES , no space for Gandhi’s ideology. even for Jawahar Lal Nehru who become India’s first prime Minster  without public & party support .& only with Gandhi’s own desire never took his ideology seriously .In 1924 FOR Multan (punjab) riots Gandhi totally blame Arya Samaj & Hindus. He even took fast in Delhi with demand that Hindus took back all their cases against Muslims.In 1927 He criticizes Swami Shardhnand for his support for  shudhicaran of Muslims.   Mahatma Gandhi never give importance secular Jinah  ,but communal Jinah became like a prophet for him  But later  Jinah & Muslim League know Gandhi’s this weekness & ashamefully but stongly use it for making Paksthan.

In the 1946 election for the Congress presidency, Patel stepped down in favour of Nehru at the request of Gandhi. The election’s importance stemmed from the fact that the elected President would lead free India’s first Government. Gandhi asked all 16 states representatives and Congress to elect the right person and Sardar Patel’s name was proposed by 13 states representatives out of 16, but Patel respected Gandhi’s request to not be the first prime minister. As the first Home Minister, Patel played a key role in integration of many princely states into the Indian federation.

On other Hand, Nelson Mandela  never compromise  on unity & equality of his nation & its people. Mandela’s administration inherited a country with a huge disparity in wealth and services between white and black communities. Of a population of 40 million, around 23 million lacked electricity or adequate sanitation, 12 million lacked clean water supplies, with 2 million children not in school and a third of the population illiterate. There was 33% unemployment, and just under half of the population lived below the poverty line. Government financial reserves were nearly depleted, with a fifth of the national budget being spent on debt repayment, meaning that the extent of the promised Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) was scaled back, with none of the proposed nationalisation or job creation. Instead, the government adopted liberal economic policies designed to promote foreign investment, adhering to the “Washington consensus” advocated by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Under Mandela’s presidency, welfare spending increased by 13% in 1996/97, 13% in 1997/98, and 7% in 1998/99. The government introduced parity in grants for communities, including disability grants, child maintenance grants, and old-age pensions, which had previously been set at different levels for South Africa’s different racial groups. In 1994, free healthcare was introduced for children under six and pregnant women, a provision extended to all those using primary level public sector health care services in 1996. By the 1999 election, the ANC could boast that due to their policies, 3 million people were connected to telephone lines, 1.5 million children were brought into the education system, 500 clinics were upgraded or constructed, 2 million people were connected to the electricity grid, water access was extended to 3 million people, and 750,000 houses were constructed, housing nearly 3 million people.

The Land Restitution Act of 1994 enabled people who had lost their property as a result of the Natives Land Act, 1913 to claim back their land, leading to the settlement of tens of thousands of land claims. The Land Reform Act 3 of 1996 safeguarded the rights of labour tenants who live and grow crops or graze livestock on farms. This legislation ensured that such tenants could not be evicted without a court order or if they were over the age of sixty-five. The Skills Development Act of 1998 provided for the establishment of mechanisms to finance and promote skills development at the workplace. The Labour Relations Act of 1995 promoted workplace democracy, orderly collective bargaining, and the effective resolution of labour disputes. The Basic Conditions of Employment Act of 1997 improved enforcement mechanisms while extending a “floor” of rights to all workers, while the Employment Equity Act of 1998 was passed to put an end to unfair discrimination and ensure the implementation of affirmative action in the workplace.

Many domestic problems however remained. Critics like Edwin Cameron accused Mandela’s government of doing little to stem the HIV/AIDS pandemic in the country; by 1999, 10% of South Africa’s population were HIV positive. Mandela later admitted that he had personally neglected the issue, leaving it for Mbeki to deal with. Mandela also received criticism for failing to sufficiently combat crime, South Africa having one of the world’s highest crime rates; this was a key reason cited by the 750,000 whites who emigrated in the late 1990s.

Mandela stepped down as ANC President at the December 1997 conference, and although hoping that Ramaphosa would replace him, the ANC elected Mbeki to the position; Mandela admitted that by then, Mbeki had become “de facto President of the country”.

From all of this you itself  find where both stood as a national or international equality ,peace & brotherhood .

 Rajiv Kumar

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Attacks on Dalits by Muslims in Gujarat- ignored by the media

 

  There are people who claim to be ‘Champions of Dalits’, many of whom are full of hatred for Hindus and Hindu religion. Some people try to raise slogans like “Dalit-Muslim bhai bhai” trying to bring Dalits and Muslims together against the Hindu society, like Dr Udit Raj, formerly known as Ram Raj. Udit Raj is a man burning with hatred for Hinduism, which he left and adopted Buddhism. In 1995, BSP leader Mayawati became Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister, and hurled abuses at Lord Ram, fabricated cases against upper caste people under the SC/ST Atrocities Prevention Act. Many people, from politicians like Sonia Gandhi, Ramvilas Paswan, Mayawati, Communists to social activists like Arundhati Roy, Medha Patkar etc claim to be fighting for the cause of Dalits, the oppressed classes and other weaken sections. 

   Some of these people also falsely launch a campaign against Hindu organisations like RSS, VHP etc accusing them of being organisations of ‘upper caste Hindus’ with a ‘anti-Dalit’ bias. Organisations like RSS, which was praised for its caste-less character by Dr Ambedkar in 1939 during his visit to a RSS camp in Pune, have been trying hard to unite the Hindu society for the past 88 years. No one except the Sangh Parivar even talks of uniting the Hindus. But the media and so-called champions of Dalits try their utmost to paint the dedicated Hindu organisations as anti-Dalit.  But what is the truth? When other caste people commit atrocities on Dalits, the media highlights the case and a hullabaloo is raised (and rightly so, so it should). Even if the attacks have nothing to do caste, or even if they are caste-based, when other caste people are involved, they are almost always projected as caste-based.

After 12 Dalits were killed in Bihar under Lalu’s rule in 1998-99, Sonia Gandhi herself visited Bihar immediately and declared that the state government has no right to be in power. (But then when the then Central Government tried to impose President’s Rule in Bihar, Sonia Gandhi opposed it and supported the RJD Government, allying with Lalu within 3 months).

But what happened when the attacks on Dalits were by Muslims?

The post-Godhra riots of 2002 in Gujarat were falsely projected as ones in which only Muslims suffered. But the truth is of course, that even after Godhra, Muslims were equally on the offensive and attacked and killed Hindus. Many of these Hindus were Dalits who suffered heavily in the Gujarat riots. India Today weekly reported in its issue of 15 April 2002:

“The next few days saw mayhem. In Ahmedabad, violence broke out on March 17 when Dalits in Danilimda area were attacked by Muslims”.  

http://www.indiatoday.com/itoday/20020415/states.shtml

The report of Dr Suvarna Rawal published in Marathi daily Tarun Bharat dated 21 July 2002 is a must read. Here it is in full.

 

“Dalits suffered heavily during Gujarat riots

 
   The news of Godhra inferno and the subsequent riots which erupted in other parts of Gujarat were highly disturbing events for the minds of any person interested in the welfare of the society. Yet among them, those of fights between Muslims and Dalits and Muslims and Adivasis were very surprising. Generally the slogan of ‘Dalit, Muslims – Bhai Bhai’ is raised and given a high pitch. There is also a talk of forming a federation of Dalit and Muslim by alienating Dalits from Hindu society. On this background, the news of Muslim crowds attacking Dalit localities or Adivasis shattering the Muslim localities was astonishing. The apprehension that perhaps, the Dalits are being used as shields in the Hindu Muslim riots also came to mind. This was the background in our minds, when we proceeded to visit Gujarat on behalf of the Survey Committee of Samarasata Manch.
 
   But what awaited us was quite different.
 
   …In the group of Ramsevaks in Sabarmati Express which was burnt to charred remains by Muslim fundamentalists, there were some Dalit youths also. Just as they became martyrs in the carnage, there were many Dalit brothers living in slums of different parts of Ahmedabad who were victims of Muslims attack. We heard a number of heart-rending reports from the relatives and neighbours of the dead persons during our sojourn in Gujarat. I am giving below a few of them by way of samples.
 
      Ramjibhai Parmar was a 24 years youth from Gomatipur area which is inhabited by Valmiki community. He saw Constable Amarbhai Patil patrolling near the Masjid was being attacked with swords by Muslims and went to rescue him but Muslims fired at him and shot him dead. (This was also reported by India Today dated 20 May 2002 and rediff.com quoting the MoS Gordhan Zadaphiya on 22 April 2002)
 
   Devendrabhai Solanki from Radhanpur, working in the Ahmedabad Sales Tax Office as Notice Server had come to the Nanu Wadkar house for Holi. On 30th March, stone-throwing started in the direction of this house. Children were playing in front of the house and to take them inside the home, he came out. A mob of about 5000 Muslims rushed on him while Darmesh some how slipped out, but one of them cut his face with sword. He lost his front teeth. Miss Dipti Solanki, daughter of Dendrabhai Solanki weeping incessantly, told us bitterly that after 13 days, the dead body of Devendrabhai were found cut in 25 pieces. 
(4 Muslims were convicted for this on 18 May 2006. Link for conviction:http://www.indianexpress.com/news/postgodhra-riots-dna-test-nails-4-killers/4719/).
 
   25 years old Vasantkumar Parmar, earning Rs.1000 p. m. by working in a private factory, was looking after his old father and unmarried sister. After curfew was withdrawn, bombs were thrown near his house, the lights went out and by the deafening sound of explosion Vasantkumar rushed out of house running. The Muslims which were hiding in an ambush on the way-out, attacked him with swords and killed him on the spot. His death cries shocked his sister-in-law Gitaben but she had the presence of mind to beat the Dish (Thali) loudly and collected people nearby. Muslims attacked this locality of 125 families from all four sides. If we had weapons, we would have fought with them better. Gitaben was sobbing saying, “My younger brother-in-law became a victim without any reason.
 
   Pravinbhai Mooljibhai Solanki, a 25-year-old youth, living in the Ramanpura area, Saatchaali was running a Panpatti shop on lease. On Ramanavami day (21st April 2002) while he was returning home after closing his shop, Muslims attacked and killed him. Mooljibhai told us that Muslims from Daryapur-Kalupur area came in our locality and exploded a bomb. As the children and women were running away, Muslims fired on them. If Dalits kept arms with them for their protection, the Police took action on them, but they take no action on the Muslims when they keep them. He said they had a serious gripe against Police for this discrimination.
 
   In the Khariwadi of Shahpura slum, there are about 220 Hindu and 10-15 Muslim families. To the left of the slum, there is a restaurant Relief Club.The Muslim manager of this hotel, got together fanatic Muslim youths from the same locality and set the houses in the locality on fire, first taking care to remove all inhabitants of Muslim houses to a safe place. They burnt houses of 35 Hindu families. Everywhere there was a desperate cry. Two girls from two houses were burnt alive. Seeing this spectacle, a 10 year Hindu boy, Suresh Mehru died of the shock. The Sindhi owner of the Hotel Reviera which is to the right of the slum, gave asylum to all these people and made arrangements for their food. These people of the slum belonging to Vaghari community were running the business of selling old clothes.
 
   Behrampura is a Muslim-majority area having a population of 1,20,000. We found that in the minds of the Dalit community, there was a terrible anger against Muslims who had shattered the life of their community. Yusuf Ajmeri with a 1000 strong mob and with swords and guptis in their hands rushed to Hindu locality shouting “Kill Hindus, Allah is with us”. On 28th February, Kisanbhai Bhikabhai Dantani who was returning from work, was attacked on his chest with swords and was killed on the spot.  His 70 year old mother was telling with deep sorrow depicted on her face.  She told that this treachery was done by their neighbours who were living along with them for last 8-10 years. She said, “They had come to finish us. My son was killed, my daughter-in-law could not stand it and has left for her village. What will be the fate of my grandson Sanjay? They have completely made our life desolate and barren.”
 
   Muslims living in Behrampura have houses with 2-3 storeys. They resorted to heavy stone-throwing on the Dalit localities. Jaisinghbhai Shyamjibhai, who had passed 9th Standard and working in a Hosiary shop was standing near his house. A heavy brick came down spinning at a great speed and hit Jaisinghbhai on the chest. The impact was so disastrous that his chest cage nearly broke open and he died on 1st March. Father of Jaisinghbhai works on daily wages in the Municipality. He was narrating us this history along with his children, all of them were terrified and jittery.
 
   Dani-Limda area of Ahmedabad has a large population of weavers community. Piyushkumar a youngster living in the Annpurna Housing Society was told by Mustak Kania, Mohamed Rafique, Kasimbhai Ganichiya and Mustak Menon from Dhruv Society just in the front side, that they were planning to launch a rocket from their building and as the rocket will take off, Mecca – Madina will be visible. Believing this story, he went to see it with curiosity, but on going there, was riddled with bullets in the throat and liver. His father and other youths from the society took him to Lallubhai Govardhandas General Hospital, but before anything was done, he died on 12th April at 6 p.m. His parents were unable to speak anything to us and hence, his grand father related us this terrible story. 
 (Muslims were convicted for this on 28 March 2006. Link for conviction: http://www.expressindia.com/news/fullstory.php?newsid=65065).
 
 
   Dayabhai Rathod from Nirmalpura had taken Voluntary Retirement and was living along with his wife, 3 daughters and his only son Pinakin of 26 years old. When stone-throwing started, a bullet from the Police hit him and he was killed on the spot. We were simply short of any words of consolation for the continuously weeping parents. His maternal uncle was expressing terrible anger against the Police.
 
   Ms Induben Laljibhai Gohil living in the Municipal Sweepers Colony near Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar bridge in Chamunda died of a Police firing. Jitu of Marwari community living in Behrampura locality also died in Police firing.
Dinesh Kantilal Makwana from Damodar Chawl was returning on 3rd March from his work. Near the graveyard, two Muslim youths stabbed him to death. His address was found by the police from some papers in his pocket and his body which had undergone post-mortem, was handed over to his grandmother who was the only relative he had.
 
   Soft Target:
   Generally, Muslim community lives close together. In many areas, there are Dalit localities or slums alongside. Around such area there are many small factories run by Muslims and Dalit labourers working in them, live surrounded by the factories and Muslims. Those Dalit brothers who could not go out due to curfew, got caught in the deadly grip of Muslims. These financially weak people were the soft target for the Muslims. From the terraces of houses, it was easy and safe for Muslims to attack the single storeyed houses, slums or sometimes two storeyed houses with stones, and crude bombs. In the closed Muslim locality of Gomatipur, even an electric current was sent preventing Police to enter.
 
   Crooked and selfish Politicians:
   These stories are indicative and not exhaustive. Atrocities on Dalits were done on such a vast scale, but no secular politician from Sonia Gandhi to Ramvilas Paswan felt like visiting the affected Dalit localities. The reporters of English press or channels did not come at all to these areas. No progressive person wearing the mask of ‘anti-fanaticism’ felt like to wipe the tears of Dalits. Anti-fanaticism means unleashing criticism on Hindus is their equation and they have firm belief in the convictions that the love for Dalits is only a point for propaganda. The Dalits in Gujarat have got the test of this naked truth in the recent riots.
 
   At the same time, Dalits got experience of the people from so-called Anti-Dalit organisations, RSS, VHP, Bajrang Dal etc. coming to their rescue risking their own lives.
 
   During this survey, we came to know as to how true was the minute analysis of Muslim mindset done by Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar.”
 

 

 
 
Along with this, let us now take a look at the report of The Indian Express dated 10 May 2002, Friday, written by Palak Nandi:
 
   “A home for long now just a death trap
 
  
   Posted online: Friday, May 10, 2002 at 0000 hours IST
     AHMEDABAD, MAY 9: Prem Darwaza in Ahmedabad is another Panwad, though here Hindus are at the receiving end unlike the Vadodara village. The locality stands out with its burnt houses, and broken bangles, steel utensils and torn bed sheets scattered across the streets.
   A half damaged wall full of charcoal scribbles summarises the Vaghri Vas locality’s feelings: ‘‘Mini Pakistan’’; ‘‘Miya Vad, Karachi’’; “Don’t come back or you’ll pay a heavy price’’, and ‘‘Hindus not allowed’’.
   Before the riots, around 800 people lived at Vaghri Vas, mostly Hindu Dalits. In the hate wave that followed, both communities were targeted. While the Dalits fled, some Muslims dared to stay put.
   Now things have changed. Unlike earlier, the minority community now calls the shots. Jeetendra Datania, an autorickshaw driver, said: ‘‘We were living here for almost 40 years. Though outsiders attacked their (Muslim) homes on February 28, they avenged it by driving us out on March 21. Now, not one of us dares to enter the locality.’’
   A daily wager’s wife, Bhavnaben Naranbhai, said: ‘‘We were more in numbers. But we dare not enter our locality now. If we try, they shoo us away saying ‘Jo tha, sab khatam ho gaya. Chale jao, varna pachtaoge(Life’s no longer the same. Run or you’ll regret it).’’
   The Dalits have put up at a nearby temple for when they returned home about a week back, they found dead animals in their houses. ‘‘The walls were full of warnings,’’ said Raju, Bhavnaben’s younger brother.
   Life is much the same at Bhanderi-ni-Pol in Kalupur locality. As many as 518 riot-hit people from Kalupur Darwaza and Kalupur Tower now stay at the Bahuchar Mata nu Mandir. ‘‘We have no choice. My shop was looted, our house pelted with stones and handmade petrol bombs,’’ said Jaswantbhai Modi.
   The locality of the temple is the ‘‘the border’’ for just across live Muslims. ‘‘A constant flow of stones, petrol bombs and even bullets from across the border is regular,’’ Nirmalaben Dave said. She lost her house in the riots. ‘‘We avoid going close to the border.’’
   Though the camps here are registered, the refugees have not been allotted a building to stay in. Refugees in Kalupur sleep on the streets and those in Dariapur spend the days in a building under construction.”
 
This clearly proves that Muslims attacked Dalits. None other than The Indian Express reported this.
 
   It is worth reading another front-pages article in the same newspaper, i.e. The Indian Express, dated 7th May 2002, also written by Palak Nandi:
 
  “With no relief, they turn to religious places for shelter
   Ahmedabad, May 6: THESE are the 1,000-odd riot victims for whomrelief is an eyewash. While some have been driven away from their houses, others had no choice but to leave their houses badly damaged in the riots.
   Relief seems to be a far-fetched idea because since the past 15 days, theyhave been spending their days either on the streets or in a half-constructed building.
   About 550-odd residents of the Prem Darwaja Vagheri Vas, Dariyapur, had no choice but to leave behind their belongings and take shelter in a near-by temple, following the violence of March 21. These Dalit families claim that they had been attacked by the people belonging to the minority community, who damaged their houses, property and drove them out of the area.
   ‘‘We had no choice but to take shelter at this temple. However, the temple cannot accommodate all of us hence, we are compelled to live in this half-constructed building,’’ says Gautamiben Dhirabhai, a resident of the Vagheri Vas.
   This half-constructed building is right opposite the temple, in the same premises and though it does not have a single fully-built room, it is the ‘house’ for more than 400 people, while the remaining sleep in the temple.
   The situation is no different at a similar relief camp in Kalupur. The Bahuchar-Mata-nu-Madir, located at Bhanderi-ni-Pol at Kalupur, is currently accommodating about 518 riot-affected victims. They are the residents of areas located between Kalupur Darwaja and Kalupur Tower and which witnessed violence on March 21.
   While a few of these people sleep at their neighbour’s house, some sleep in the temple while the rest, mainly the men, sleep in the lanes, just outside the temple. The temple area is called as ‘border area’ by the local residents, as across the temple is the locality of the Muslims. ‘‘There is a continuous flow of stones, petrol bombs and even bullets at times, from across the border. All of us avoid even going close to the border,’’ says Nirmalaben Dave, whose house has been damaged during the riots.
   The inmates of both the camps have demanded for a building, but as yet none of them have been allotted one. ‘‘We have been demanding for the Kalpur Municipal school number 14 and 19, for a long time now, but we have not been allotted the school building. Because of the space shortage, these people have no choice but to eat and sleep in the lanes,’’ says Paresh Thakkar, organiser of the camp, who lives nearby.
   For years, both Hindus and Muslims lived together in the area. Now the mutual trust and faith between the two communities has been replaced by fear, panic and hatred.
   ‘‘For more than 60 years, we lived peacefully and there was never any problem. However, on March 21, a few people of my locality came to me and told me that I should leave my house for good and if I return, they will not be responsible for the consequences,’’ says Badamiben Prajapari, who lives alone with her son.
   ‘‘It is not safe for these people to live here as one does not know when the stone-pelting and violence will begin. Already, the third floor of my building has been damaged due to the petrol bombs,’’ says Bhagyovadan Khatri, trustee of the temple. But the refugees are apprehensive about returning to their houses.
   ‘‘About five of us were injured in a private firing on March 21. All of us now are very careful and avoid going to their area, except in a group’’, says Hitendra Shah, who was injured in the incident.”
 

This is a clear proof of the fact that Dalits suffered heavily in the riots, at the hands of Muslims. But the entire non-Gujarati media generally kept quiet on this issue. 

The reporters of English press or channels did not come at all to these areas. On the contrary, they tried to push these atrocities under the carpet, ignore them, and act as if there were no atrocities on Dalits done by Muslims at all. Arundhati Roy, Brinda Karat, Medha Patkar, etc also did not bother to even let the world know these atrocities, not to talk of helping the affected Dalits and exposing the attackers (Muslims) and demanding harsh punishment to the attackers. No progressive person wearing the mask of ‘anti-fanaticism’ felt like to wipe the tears of Dalits. 

These attacks exposed 4 catagories of people:

1- Media: It often reports cases which have nothing to do with caste as caste-based attacks. The genuine attacks and sufferings must always be reported, but in case of atrocities done by upper caste people, the media at times exaggerates. But when the attacks were done by Muslims, the media totally ignored them and pretended as if nothing happened.
2- A section of Muslims: Those who talk of uniting Dalits and Muslims against Hindus in general and RSS in particular were so fanatic that they did not spare even those with whom they plan to ally in other areas. The true face of fanatics is always that non-followers of their religion will suffer, be they of any caste or any other religion. 
3- So-called Dalit leaders: So-called champions of Dalits like Mayawati, Ramvilas Paswan, Udit Raj etc who would have raised a hulabaloo had the atrocities on Dalits in Gujarat committed by Muslims instead been committed by upper caste Hindus, did not even notice and tried to suppress all these atrocities.
4- Hindu organisations like RSS, VHP: Volunteers of these Hindu organisations gave great help to Dalits often coming to their rescue at a great risk to their own lives. 

 

   When this writer talked to some ‘secularists’ on the attacks by Muslims on Hindus and Dalits in particular, he got interesting answers. In Muslim-dominated areas of Ahmedabad and other places, the Hindus living in minority, (often microscopic minority) many of whom were Dalits, suffered horribly, were thrown out of their homes, attacked and killed by Muslims. Not only that, even in other areas like Sindhi market and Bhanderi Pole areas of Ahmedabad the Muslims attacked the Hindus. The Muslim backlash started on 1 March 2002, 1 day after 28 February when the Hindus attacked Muslims in Ahmedabad’s Naroda Patiya, Gulbarga Society and other areas. The ‘secularists’, after listening to these facts of Muslim attacks said to me:“It is natural and inevitable. If Hindus attack and kill them in Naroda Patiya, they will obviously attack, kill, render homeless the Hindus living in minority in their dominated areas in the next days”. This response has 2 important implications:
 
1- When Muslims attack Hindus, they think it is ‘natural’ and ‘inevitable’ because of attacks by Hindus on 28 Feb in Naroda Patiya. But for them Naroda Patiya attacks were not ‘inevitable’ and ‘natural’ because of Godhra killings of Hindus!
 
2- They know and admit that Muslims attacked Hindus even after Godhra, when they say its ‘natural’ and ‘inevitable’. If you know that its ‘inevitable’ that Muslims will attack Hindus in their areas and also other areas if riots last weeks, then why do they lie that Muslims were massacred in one-sided attacks ignoring attacks on Hindus, in particular, Dalits?  
 
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CBI on Ajit Jogi cash-for-MLAs scam

 The CBI has targetted now the former Rajasthan Home Minister and Leader of Opposition Gulabchand Kataria in the Sohrabuddin case. This is actually to frame innocent leaders, Amit Shah was targetted as he is Narendra Modi;s truested aide and now they want to target other leaders as much as possible. No evidence was found against Amit Shah and despite very weak, if any, evidence CBI has targetted both Amit Shah and Kataria. But what has CBI done on another case with evidence? 
 
Congress leader Ajit Jogi once spilt the BJP in Chhattisgarh in December 2001, when he walked away with 12 MLAs through money power. In December 2003, when the BJP won Chhattisgarh, winning 50 out of 90 seats, Ajit Jogi tried to split the BJP again and form the Government. He wrote a letter to the then Governor saying, “Our Congress Party’s all 37 MLAs give their support to a government to be formed under the leadership of Baliram Kashyap, MP. Please give us the chance to form the government”. This letter of Jogi was openly brought out in the media and Ajit Jogi admitted that he wrote the letter.
The same day as this letter went out, an audio tape having conversation between Ajit Jogi and a BJP leader of Chhattisgarh on phone was aired. In that tape, Jogi was talking of giving money to buy BJP MLAs to split the party. Jogi later said that the letter to the Governor was his, but the voice in the tape was not his. But this lie was exposed by the forensic lab report which said that the voice in the tape was indeed of Ajit Jogi. This single lie itself is enough to nail Ajit Jogi. This report shows that the lab said it was Jogi’s voice only. 

http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2006-01-22/india/27803015_1_cash-for-mlas-p-r-khunte-ram-avtar-jaggi

But just on 4th June 2012 the CBI said that it cannot prosecute Ajit Jogi and has filed a closure report.
http://articles.timesofindia. indiatimes.com/2012-06-05/india/32055198_1_cbi-files-closure-report-ajit-jogi-horse-trading

For bribing the MLAs, 45 lakh rupees were paid in cash to a BJP leader, directly by Ajit Jogi and his son Amit Jogi. These 45 lakh were handed over to the CBI as well in December. Despite this clear evidence the CBI first said in January 2007 that it cannot prosecute Jogi and now again has said in June 2012 (of course on Congress Government’s orders.

Now let us look at the contents of that conversation.

First is here are some excerpts of that talk between Jogi and BJP leader Virendra Pandey carried by a Congress sycophant weekly like Outlook. Note that this Congress loyalist weekly carefully deletes the reference to Sonia Gandhi in the excerpts. And this tape has been proved to be genuine by the Forensic Lab on 22 Jan 2006. 
             
The Transcript
Virender Pandey is Chhatisgarh state BJP vice-president. ‘Khunte’ referred to in the conversation is the BJP MP who had defected to the Congress before the (2003) elections. Now of course he claims that he was under pressure.

 

Ajit Jogi: Hello
Virender Pandey: Jogiji, tell me…
Ajit Jogi: Pandeyji I had sent you a message.
Virender Pandey: I received it but some things need to be clarified.
Ajit Jogi: Tell me.
Virender Pandey: First the numbers. You have 37, right?
Ajit Jogi: Take it as 39, two from BSP
Virender Pandey: Have you spoken to them?
Ajit Jogi: Yes
Virender Pandey: So we need to arrange seven more to achieve the figure of 7
Ajit Jogi: The speaker is our man. He will not disqualify them.
Virender Pandey: So they have joined you. Now you’ll have to go to the Governor, it is better if the whole thing is done this evening
Ajit Jogi: True
Virender Pandey: But there is a slight problem. Balli Ram has a great stature in the party, in fact, Bal Thackeray had even called him an uncut diamond. He has such an ability to pull people. So if he leaves, he will be putting his life’s reputation at stake.
Ajit Jogi: That shouldn’t be a problem
Virender Pandey: The other thing we need is a guarantee that they will not withdraw support for five years. So your party should make an announcement that these people are joining us against communal forces, and then they should say which is why we shall not withdraw support. Then we can work out a common minimum programme.
Ajit Jogi: That can be easily done.
Virender Pandey: It’s important because we all know what happened with the Chandrashekhar Government.
Ajit Jogi: Chandrashekhar is a different story, I am Jogi and I shall do what I say.
Virender Pandey: I got a call from Khunte and I spoke to him and told him to think about who are the people who can leave. In his Lok Sabha constituency there are four people – his son, Bedu Ram Kashyap, Lachchu Kashyap, Mahesh Baghel. These four-five names are doing the rounds, but for the other names we will need cash, without that nothing happens now days.
Ajit Jogi: That will be arranged.
Virender Pandey: We will have to pay them some money in advance, 2 to 4 lakhs right now, today, the rest can be settled later.
Ajit Jogi: That’ll be done.
Virender Pandey: So send 15 – 20 lakhs to me through Khunte, then I shall talk to Balli Ram and then get back but send the money in the next two hours
Ajit Jogi: I shall call Khunte right away. How much? About 15 – 20 ?
Virender Pandey: Yes about 20 – 25 is enough.
Ajit Jogi: I shall send it, but only if the deal is done.
Virender Pandey: Definitely, only if it comes through, otherwise the money will come back to you.

http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?222277  

Congress loyalist weekly Outlook carefully deleted the reference to Sonia Gandhi in its excerpts published. Here is this reference included in experts by another daily The Telegraph. The original tape and full text may have even more. 
 

Ajit Jogi is a very cunning and a very dangerous man. Note that former BJP chief Bangaru Laxman was convicted and given 4 years imprisonment on a fictitious case, where all the so-called dealers and deals were unreal. If he could be convicted for an imaginary thing, then Jogi can definitely be convicted for this real attempt to split the BJP giving 45 lakh in cash, which were given to CBI and this was second attempt to split the BJP after splitting once in 2001, also through money. All anti-corruption crusaders like Anna Hazare, Baba Ramdev etc should be asked to raise this issue to nail the CBI and the Congress for trying to let Jogi get away with this.
 
And this CBI has evidence against Amit Shah and Kataria, but not against Ajit Jogi! 
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NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT IN MACRO SETTING BY ISLAMISTS

 

Dr. Babu Suseelan

Islamic religious leaders always issue Fatwas to create negative reinforcement in a macro setting. An Egyptian Islamic clergy recently issued a Fatwa that husbands can have sex with his dead spouse. According to the Islamic scholar it is allowed in Islam. In Afghanistan, Islamic women who attend schools or colleges can be beaten or threatened with severe punishment according to Islam. Islamic religious leaders who has no modern education decides the reading of the boring and excruciatingly dull Hadith and the Koran to turn Islamists against all social norms of the modern society. Hence, Islamists become agitated and turn to violence.  It was amazing that Muslims who were forced to believe that Koran contains the ultimate truth and knowledge and respond aggressively to various environmental stimuli.   Muslim’s focus on not on the outdated, closed Islam or the entire Islamic group’s process of functioning is creating is affecting people’s behavior around the world. Islamic education (rote learning) conditions Muslims and the emission of brutal behavior to a specific stimulus.

As a result, Muslims are not capable of solving ethical dilemmas or hot political issues. Muslims are not known for regulating violent, deviant socially unacceptable behaviors which threaten all infidels. Islamic religious scholars or social leaders are reluctant to emphasize people’s ability to make rational decisions and alter behavior. In all Islamic countries positive reinforcement theory and its application has rarely been applied to task Islamic groups and their operations in macro settings. Islamic societies have not produced model leaders and coping strategies to deal with problematic situations including anger, stress, or other strong emotions. that Muslims confront  every day. Positive reinforcement is rarely used to reinforce positive behaviors acceptable to the changing world. Islamic religious leaders and political leaders must take appropriate steps for Islamic cognitive restructuring and present to the masses a set of procedures used to replace self-defeating, illogical or automatic patterns of that interfere with social functioning with self-enhancing or logical ones. Because of young Muslims are conditioned at young age (through rote learning), they develop distorted perceptions on the non-Islamic world and events. As a result, Muslims experience frequent conflict with infidels. Most of the Muslims functioning on violence and aggression and their Islamic distorted consciousness determines what actions are right and wrong.

We are living an ever changing world. Psychology, life sciences, science, logic and our understanding of human behavior are changing. Muslims still parade Islam as a religion not in need of any change. It is a perfect and perfected religion for Muslims. It is incumbent on every member of the modern world to make careful scrutiny of Islamist’s behavior and their hostile interactions with infidels. The intend is freedom loving, law abiding citizens to attain insight, understanding of their motivations, emotional disturbances, brutal and deviant behaviors, and their ultimate goals. We are obligated to monitor, educate and force Islamists to believe that we are living in an organic entity with boundaries, purpose, and mechanisms for change and stability.

Courtesy: http://www.faithfreedom.org/?p=44452

 

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एक दशक से एकछत्र शासन कर रहे नरेंद्र मोदी की चुनावी कामयाबी के कारणों को रेखांकित कर रहे हैं प्रशांत मिश्र

 

गुजरात में नरेंद्र मोदी ने तीसरी बार शानदार जनादेश लेकर यह साबित कर दिया है कि अगर लक्ष्य स्पष्ट हो, साधन ठीक हों तो विजय चरण चूमती ही है। गुजरात के इन विधानसभा चुनावों में न तो 2002 के दंगों की टीस बची थी, न ही हिंदुत्व की प्रयोगशाला कहे जाने वाले गुजरात में सांप्रदायिकता जैसा कोई भावनात्मक मुद्दा ही था। मोदी ने विकास की जो रेखा खींची और गुजराती अस्मिता को जगाया उससे राज्य की जनता को लगा कि वह मुख्यमंत्री नहीं, बल्कि देश का भावी प्रधानमंत्री चुनने जा रही है। मोदी पूरे चुनाव में वास्तव में विपक्षियों से नहीं, बल्कि इन्हीं अपेक्षाओं या अपनी खींची हुई रेखा से लड़ रहे थे। गुजरात प्रदेश के जन्म के बाद से सर्वाधिक लंबे समय तक मुख्यमंत्री बने रहने का रिकार्ड तो उनके नाम पहले ही हो चुका था, लेकिन अब सबसे ज्यादा बार जीतने का ताज भी उनके सिर है। मोदी की सीटों की संख्या को लेकर राजनीतिक पंडित या प्रेक्षक चाहे जो भी अनुमान लगा रहे हों, लेकिन खुद उन्होंने कभी इसे बहुत तूल नहीं दिया। गुजरात चुनाव कवरेज के दौरान मैंने बार-बार मोदी से सीटों की संख्या पर लग रहे अनुमानों पर पूछा तो हर बार उनका जवाब यही था कि आगे बढ़ेंगे। चारों तरफ से चल रही विरोधी हवाओं के बीच भी मोदी के इस आत्मविश्वास की जमीन कितनी मजबूत थी, इसका सुबूत नतीजों ने भी दे दिया। लिहाजा गुजरात के ताजा जनादेश के तूफानी तेवर तीसरी बार भी बरकरार हैं। इसमें चकाचौंध की चमक केवल इसलिए कम है, क्योंकि हमारी आंखें मोदी से ऐसे चमत्कार देखने की आदी हो चुकी हैं। पिछले दो चुनाव से बिल्कुल अलग इस बार उनके पास भावनात्मक रूप से उकसाने वाला कोई मुद्दा नहीं था। 2007 के चुनाव में उन्होंने आधे से ज्यादा विधायकों को बदलने का जोखिम भी लिया था, लेकिन इस बार भितरघात के भय से उन्हें भी अपनी राजनीतिक शैली, साहस की जगह संयम को महत्व देना पड़ा। इसी बदली राजनीतिक शैली के चलते उन्होंने भाजपा के केंद्रीय नेतृत्व को पहले की तुलना में थोड़ा महत्व भी दिया। वोटिंग मशीन से निकले नतीजे के तुरंत बाद इस समय यह सोचना थोड़ा मुश्किल लग रहा है कि गुजरात के सत्ता शिखर में खड़े रहने के लिए मोदी को भी तमाम बाधाओं का सामना करना पड़ा है। इस बार मोदी के सामने दो नई चुनौतियां थीं। केशू बापा एक अलग पार्टी के नेता के तौर पर सामने थे। वे कम से कम सौराष्ट्र में भाजपा का भविष्य खराब कर सकते थे, और इसके लिए उन्हें बहुत बड़े समर्थन की जरूरत भी नहीं थी। कल्याण सिंह बहुत कम समर्थन पाकर भी उत्तर प्रदेश में भाजपा का बहुत बड़ा नुकसान कर चुके हैं। मोदी को दूसरी बड़ी चुनौती कांग्रेस की बदली हुई रणनीति से मिल रही थी। केंद्र के कांग्रेसी शासन में तमाम काले धब्बे भले ही हों, लेकिन इस बार गुजरात चुनाव की कांग्रेसी रणनीति काफी समझदारी भरी दिखी। पिछले चुनाव में मौत का सौदागर वाली घातक गलती से सबक लेकर इस बार कांग्रेस ने सांप्रदायिकता के सवाल को ही समाप्त कर दिया था। इसी राजनीति की वजह से ही शायद कांग्रेस ने पिछली बार की तुलना में इस बार एक तिहाई से भी कम अल्पसंख्यक उम्मीदवार मैदान में उतारे थे। उसके घोषणापत्र में गुजरात दंगों का जिक्र तक नहीं था। कांग्रेस ने मोदी को हिंदुत्व और राष्ट्रवाद के मुद्दे पर घेरने से पूरी तरह परहेज किया। मोदी ने सर क्रीक और मियां अहमद पटेल का जिक्र जरूर किया, लेकिन उसकी धार, उनके आक्रमण पिछली बार की तरह तेज नहीं थे। प्रधानमंत्री की एक सभा के कुछ अंशों को मोदी ने उठाकर कांग्रेस को इस मैदान में लाने की कोशिश जरूर की, लेकिन कांग्रेस इस बहकावे में नहीं आई। संभवत: काग्रेस पर दबाव इतना था कि पूरे केंद्रीय नेतृत्व ने अभियान में मोदी का नाम तक लेने में कंजूसी बरती। भारत के इतिहास में शायद पहली बार ऐसा हुआ है कि एक प्रादेशिक आम चुनाव के पूरे प्रचार अभियान में कांग्रेस के पोस्टरों से पूरा नेहरू-गांधी परिवार और यहां तक कि पूरा केंद्रीय नेतृत्व गायब था। केंद्रीय नेतृत्व ने गुजरात जाकर प्रचार की केवल खानापूरी ही की। कांग्रेस की कोशिश थी कि पूरे चुनाव में उपकेंद्रीय मुद्दे हावी रहें जिससे निपटने में शंकर सिंह वाघेला, अर्जुन मोडवाडिया और शक्ति सिंह गोहिल जैसे नेता ही समर्थ रहें। निर्णायक रूप से पराजित होने के बावजूद कांग्रेस की रणनीति में कोई बड़ी गलती नहीं दिखी, लेकिन मोदी के सामने कोई कद्दावर नेतृत्व न होना उन्हें भारी पड़ा। जाहिर है कि केवल अच्छी रणनीति से ही मोदी को हराना नामुमकिन है। कांग्रेस ने मोदी के गुजरात के विकास के दावे में दरार पैदा करने की कोशिश जरूर की, लेकिन जनता ने उसे स्वीकार नहीं किया। गुजरात के विकास की वास्तविकता पर अब कोई बड़ी बहस संभव नहीं है। इस नए जनादेश की सकारात्मक व्याख्या यह हो सकती है कि गुजरात की जनता ने बची-खुची कुछ राजनीतिक समस्याओं को नकारा नहीं है, बल्कि यह माना है कि मोदी ही विकास की इन कमजोरियों को दूर कर सकते हैं। भावनात्मक मुद्दों के भाव और एक दशक से अधिक एकछत्र शासन के बाद भी मोदी की शानदार सफलता उनके सुशासन की प्रामाणिक पुष्टि भी करती है। राजनीतिक दांवपेंचों की आड़ में इस सकारात्मक संदेश को छिपाया नहीं जा सकता। हकीकत यह है कि मोदी ने गुजराती मानस के भिन्न वर्गो के साथ ही कहीं न कहीं समग्र गुजराती समुदाय को अपने शासन से संतोष दिया है। मोदी की जिस कार्यशैली में उनके विरोधियों में तानाशाही दिखती है, गुजराती मानस उसमें दृढ़त, स्पष्टता और प्रतिबद्धता देखता है। पूरे गुजरात में घूमने के बाद मुझे कई बार ऐसा लगा कि एक आम गुजराती मोदी की विशिष्ट कार्यप्रणाली को ठीक मानता है। आम धारणा है कि मोदी सबको कम समय देते हैं, लेकिन वह उपलब्ध तो हैं। इतना ही नहीं समय देने के पहले संबंधित मसले की फाइल को पूरी तरह समझ लेते हैं। तुरंत निर्णय लेते हैं और उसे समयबद्ध ढंग से लागू करते हैं। यहां तक कि कई गुजराती मुस्लिम नेता भी इस सच्चाई को सार्वजनिक रूप से स्वीकार कर चुके हैं। मोदी का विकास अभियान अभी अधूरा हो सकता है, लेकिन विधि व्यवस्था के मामले में उनकी उपलब्धियों को विवाद का विषय नहीं बनाया जा सकता। सच्चाई यह है कि कांग्रेसी सरकारों के समय गुजरात सांप्रदायिक ही नहीं जातिवादी दंगों से भी त्रस्त हो चुका था। नव निर्माण आंदोलन का विस्फोट भी यहीं हुआ था। व्यापार और उद्योग का केंद्र होने के नाते गुजरात के लिए कफ्र्यू रहित जीवन की अहमियत बहुत होती है। इसके अलावा मोदी ने अपने प्रदेश के हर क्षेत्र और हर वर्ग को आशा का एक नया आधार भी दिया है। मसलन इस चुनाव में मोदी ने युवाओं और महिलाओं में अपनी विशेष लोकप्रियता को सिद्ध किया है। पूरे भारत में भाजपा के पारंपरिक मतदाताओं के बीच मोदी सबसे लोकप्रिय है। यदि यह कहा जाए कि अखिल भारतीय पहचान वाले वह एकमात्र मुख्यमंत्री हैं तो गलत नहीं है। गुजरात के जनादेश ने भाजपा की केंद्रीय राजनीति में मोदी के महत्व को मान लिया है। लोकतांत्रिक राजनीति में किसी भी नेता की यह सबसे बड़ी पूंजी होती है। और इस जनादेश ने मोदी को इस पूंजी का मालिक बना दिया है। (लेखक दैनिक जागरण के राजनीतिक संपादक हैं)गुजरात में नरेंद्र मोदी ने तीसरी बार शानदार जनादेश लेकर यह साबित कर दिया है कि अगर लक्ष्य स्पष्ट हो, साधन ठीक हों तो विजय चरण चूमती ही है। गुजरात के इन विधानसभा चुनावों में न तो 2002 के दंगों की टीस बची थी, न ही हिंदुत्व की प्रयोगशाला कहे जाने वाले गुजरात में सांप्रदायिकता जैसा कोई भावनात्मक मुद्दा ही था। मोदी ने विकास की जो रेखा खींची और गुजराती अस्मिता को जगाया उससे राज्य की जनता को लगा कि वह मुख्यमंत्री नहीं, बल्कि देश का भावी प्रधानमंत्री चुनने जा रही है। मोदी पूरे चुनाव में वास्तव में विपक्षियों से नहीं, बल्कि इन्हीं अपेक्षाओं या अपनी खींची हुई रेखा से लड़ रहे थे। गुजरात प्रदेश के जन्म के बाद से सर्वाधिक लंबे समय तक मुख्यमंत्री बने रहने का रिकार्ड तो उनके नाम पहले ही हो चुका था, लेकिन अब सबसे ज्यादा बार जीतने का ताज भी उनके सिर है। मोदी की सीटों की संख्या को लेकर राजनीतिक पंडित या प्रेक्षक चाहे जो भी अनुमान लगा रहे हों, लेकिन खुद उन्होंने कभी इसे बहुत तूल नहीं दिया। गुजरात चुनाव कवरेज के दौरान मैंने बार-बार मोदी से सीटों की संख्या पर लग रहे अनुमानों पर पूछा तो हर बार उनका जवाब यही था कि आगे बढ़ेंगे। चारों तरफ से चल रही विरोधी हवाओं के बीच भी मोदी के इस आत्मविश्वास की जमीन कितनी मजबूत थी, इसका सुबूत नतीजों ने भी दे दिया। लिहाजा गुजरात के ताजा जनादेश के तूफानी तेवर तीसरी बार भी बरकरार हैं। इसमें चकाचौंध की चमक केवल इसलिए कम है, क्योंकि हमारी आंखें मोदी से ऐसे चमत्कार देखने की आदी हो चुकी हैं। पिछले दो चुनाव से बिल्कुल अलग इस बार उनके पास भावनात्मक रूप से उकसाने वाला कोई मुद्दा नहीं था। 2007 के चुनाव में उन्होंने आधे से ज्यादा विधायकों को बदलने का जोखिम भी लिया था, लेकिन इस बार भितरघात के भय से उन्हें भी अपनी राजनीतिक शैली, साहस की जगह संयम को महत्व देना पड़ा। इसी बदली राजनीतिक शैली के चलते उन्होंने भाजपा के केंद्रीय नेतृत्व को पहले की तुलना में थोड़ा महत्व भी दिया। वोटिंग मशीन से निकले नतीजे के तुरंत बाद इस समय यह सोचना थोड़ा मुश्किल लग रहा है कि गुजरात के सत्ता शिखर में खड़े रहने के लिए मोदी को भी तमाम बाधाओं का सामना करना पड़ा है। इस बार मोदी के सामने दो नई चुनौतियां थीं। केशू बापा एक अलग पार्टी के नेता के तौर पर सामने थे। वे कम से कम सौराष्ट्र में भाजपा का भविष्य खराब कर सकते थे, और इसके लिए उन्हें बहुत बड़े समर्थन की जरूरत भी नहीं थी। कल्याण सिंह बहुत कम समर्थन पाकर भी उत्तर प्रदेश में भाजपा का बहुत बड़ा नुकसान कर चुके हैं। मोदी को दूसरी बड़ी चुनौती कांग्रेस की बदली हुई रणनीति से मिल रही थी। केंद्र के कांग्रेसी शासन में तमाम काले धब्बे भले ही हों, लेकिन इस बार गुजरात चुनाव की कांग्रेसी रणनीति काफी समझदारी भरी दिखी। पिछले चुनाव में मौत का सौदागर वाली घातक गलती से सबक लेकर इस बार कांग्रेस ने सांप्रदायिकता के सवाल को ही समाप्त कर दिया था। इसी राजनीति की वजह से ही शायद कांग्रेस ने पिछली बार की तुलना में इस बार एक तिहाई से भी कम अल्पसंख्यक उम्मीदवार मैदान में उतारे थे। उसके घोषणापत्र में गुजरात दंगों का जिक्र तक नहीं था। कांग्रेस ने मोदी को हिंदुत्व और राष्ट्रवाद के मुद्दे पर घेरने से पूरी तरह परहेज किया। मोदी ने सर क्रीक और मियां अहमद पटेल का जिक्र जरूर किया, लेकिन उसकी धार, उनके आक्रमण पिछली बार की तरह तेज नहीं थे। प्रधानमंत्री की एक सभा के कुछ अंशों को मोदी ने उठाकर कांग्रेस को इस मैदान में लाने की कोशिश जरूर की, लेकिन कांग्रेस इस बहकावे में नहीं आई। संभवत: काग्रेस पर दबाव इतना था कि पूरे केंद्रीय नेतृत्व ने अभियान में मोदी का नाम तक लेने में कंजूसी बरती। भारत के इतिहास में शायद पहली बार ऐसा हुआ है कि एक प्रादेशिक आम चुनाव के पूरे प्रचार अभियान में कांग्रेस के पोस्टरों से पूरा नेहरू-गांधी परिवार और यहां तक कि पूरा केंद्रीय नेतृत्व गायब था। केंद्रीय नेतृत्व ने गुजरात जाकर प्रचार की केवल खानापूरी ही की। कांग्रेस की कोशिश थी कि पूरे चुनाव में उपकेंद्रीय मुद्दे हावी रहें जिससे निपटने में शंकर सिंह वाघेला, अर्जुन मोडवाडिया और शक्ति सिंह गोहिल जैसे नेता ही समर्थ रहें। निर्णायक रूप से पराजित होने के बावजूद कांग्रेस की रणनीति में कोई बड़ी गलती नहीं दिखी, लेकिन मोदी के सामने कोई कद्दावर नेतृत्व न होना उन्हें भारी पड़ा। जाहिर है कि केवल अच्छी रणनीति से ही मोदी को हराना नामुमकिन है। कांग्रेस ने मोदी के गुजरात के विकास के दावे में दरार पैदा करने की कोशिश जरूर की, लेकिन जनता ने उसे स्वीकार नहीं किया। गुजरात के विकास की वास्तविकता पर अब कोई बड़ी बहस संभव नहीं है। इस नए जनादेश की सकारात्मक व्याख्या यह हो सकती है कि गुजरात की जनता ने बची-खुची कुछ राजनीतिक समस्याओं को नकारा नहीं है, बल्कि यह माना है कि मोदी ही विकास की इन कमजोरियों को दूर कर सकते हैं। भावनात्मक मुद्दों के भाव और एक दशक से अधिक एकछत्र शासन के बाद भी मोदी की शानदार सफलता उनके सुशासन की प्रामाणिक पुष्टि भी करती है। राजनीतिक दांवपेंचों की आड़ में इस सकारात्मक संदेश को छिपाया नहीं जा सकता। हकीकत यह है कि मोदी ने गुजराती मानस के भिन्न वर्गो के साथ ही कहीं न कहीं समग्र गुजराती समुदाय को अपने शासन से संतोष दिया है। मोदी की जिस कार्यशैली में उनके विरोधियों में तानाशाही दिखती है, गुजराती मानस उसमें दृढ़त, स्पष्टता और प्रतिबद्धता देखता है। पूरे गुजरात में घूमने के बाद मुझे कई बार ऐसा लगा कि एक आम गुजराती मोदी की विशिष्ट कार्यप्रणाली को ठीक मानता है। आम धारणा है कि मोदी सबको कम समय देते हैं, लेकिन वह उपलब्ध तो हैं। इतना ही नहीं समय देने के पहले संबंधित मसले की फाइल को पूरी तरह समझ लेते हैं। तुरंत निर्णय लेते हैं और उसे समयबद्ध ढंग से लागू करते हैं। यहां तक कि कई गुजराती मुस्लिम नेता भी इस सच्चाई को सार्वजनिक रूप से स्वीकार कर चुके हैं। मोदी का विकास अभियान अभी अधूरा हो सकता है, लेकिन विधि व्यवस्था के मामले में उनकी उपलब्धियों को विवाद का विषय नहीं बनाया जा सकता। सच्चाई यह है कि कांग्रेसी सरकारों के समय गुजरात सांप्रदायिक ही नहीं जातिवादी दंगों से भी त्रस्त हो चुका था। नव निर्माण आंदोलन का विस्फोट भी यहीं हुआ था। व्यापार और उद्योग का केंद्र होने के नाते गुजरात के लिए कफ्र्यू रहित जीवन की अहमियत बहुत होती है। इसके अलावा मोदी ने अपने प्रदेश के हर क्षेत्र और हर वर्ग को आशा का एक नया आधार भी दिया है। मसलन इस चुनाव में मोदी ने युवाओं और महिलाओं में अपनी विशेष लोकप्रियता को सिद्ध किया है। पूरे भारत में भाजपा के पारंपरिक मतदाताओं के बीच मोदी सबसे लोकप्रिय है। यदि यह कहा जाए कि अखिल भारतीय पहचान वाले वह एकमात्र मुख्यमंत्री हैं तो गलत नहीं है। गुजरात के जनादेश ने भाजपा की केंद्रीय राजनीति में मोदी के महत्व को मान लिया है। लोकतांत्रिक राजनीति में किसी भी नेता की यह सबसे बड़ी पूंजी होती है। और इस जनादेश ने मोदी को इस पूंजी का मालिक बना दिया है। (लेखक दैनिक जागरण के राजनीतिक संपादक हैं)

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